3. reference frames


A reference frame is a point of view. Reality has an infinite number of reference frames. Each one is true, relative to itself. Each one is different relative to the others. A hierarchical view of this would attempt to label some views as "less true" than others. We can recognize that all views are equally true to themselves; and that the apparent differences in reality implied by the perceived differences from various reference frames, are simply more components of the actual flow of process, that is reality.


As a case in point, we have a tendency to pull human behavior into the "camp" of biology or psychology. Our nature has been to attempt to attribute human process to one or the other viewpoint; by describing that behavior in the terms that have come to define the given circle of thought. I believe that we will gain more power from these endeavors as we increase our appreciation of the connections between the rules that we have artificially segregated. Biology produces psychological behavior. That behavior is a real part of human process that includes the most complex relationships between all of the rules of process involved in human undertakings. We think of biology as being simpler; even though its complexity runs away from us, out to the horizon of our scientific aspirations. We want to regard it as somehow being so much simpler, anyway, that it applies more to plants and lower animals than it can to humans. Our keen sense of self-awareness has fooled us into thinking that there is something going on, only in humans, that canít be attributed to the biology of our process. The philosophy being presented here does not recognize a distinction between human experience and biological process. These are not different processes ó the latter is a natural development of the former. Human experience is a biological appendage. Every aspect of reality is process. The partitions we have placed into the process are artificial and arbitrary.

This attitude is a fundamental component of the framework being presented by this book. Chapters 4 through 8 are major reference frames of reality. They are different ways of looking at the same thing. The latter frames are natural developments of the formers. They also lead around and back to the formers. Among other things, the overall cycle of this process makes you conscious.

Being conscious gives us the privilege of viewing reality in degrees of "error." Ultimately, everything reality does is unquestionably perfectly correct; because it is the truth ó it simply is reality. We tend to forget this when we are caught up in the process of improving our condition. We would like to make more improvements in less time, with the least necessary effort. Along these lines, it is natural for us to view aspects or sub-processes of the overall struggle as being errant. We pull a lot of this confusion out of our assessment of human behavior as being controlled by individuals composed of "magic" that transcends biology. Our apparent independence of behavior clouds our view of the biological current of social interaction. Since we are not connected, we think behavior is not really part of our biological process. This has caused us to avoid dealing with some of the rules of reality that are involved with our rich variety of social problems.

In a sense, all reference frames are really errant if we use the term to describe them as being partially unknowing. For example, the Earth really is flat, in limited cases. The Earth is reasonably flat, relative to the reference frame of a reasonably laid concrete slab. With this approach we can consider all frames to be sub-perfect, yet true. Another such frame might consider the former one to be errant, due to the relative angle incurred to it by the curvature of the Earth, when separation is sufficient. No reference frame is more or less true than another, in the absolute sense. Its value is relative to itself. As process involves interaction between frames, the rules include transposition of their formats to the degree of their resonance.

We can also imagine a perfect reference frame. There can only be one such frame, because it must be all-inclusive. It would be the simultaneous knowledge of all process and its inter-relationships, over all time... a condensing of all eternities of all realities into a single permanent collection of knowing. This reference frame will be referred to as "the point." We will come to regard it as a frame that can only have experiential viewpoints from component sub-frames that compose isolated rule trees. The trees are only related in that they are necessary to complete the point. There may be only one tree.

The less-than-perfect frames are all related to each other, within a given tree. Even though they must disagree about something or other, they all work together. Their process is not isolated. Their processes interact to produce higher ordinates of process. In other words, each one is a viewpoint from a different position within the same, single, overall process. Each reference frame is the Universe, proceeding directly, or indirectly, from all of the other reference frames it has come from, and continuing into all of the frames that it will lead to. Object Physics will demonstrate an example of how these connections between frames could even get around the cone of time, that isolates events with the limitation of light velocity. The overall eternal process leads to the inner-most workings of all systems. These two extremes are opposite views of the same thing, observed through phase reversals of reality.


Special Frames


Reference frame development is usually considered under the heading of Physics, which is also concerned with the most fundamental mechanisms of physical reality. Though physics may be getting close to the basics of the conventions of reality, the philosophy here develops a view from which any of the frames of chapters 4 through 8 can be regarded as the most fundamental, or the most complex. The frames are seen to be aspects of a single circular frame. This approach exposes the nature of light in relative process, as an inter-dependence of sub-processes in the overall process of reality. This aspect of the rules of reality is well hidden; when reality is viewed as involving photons that are particles... objects that can travel the speed of light, without being accelerated. Even from there, however, it has shown up as "spooky action at a distance." At times it seems as though the Universe "knows" what is going on ó though we generally regard it as being a bunch of stuff at our disposal. The Universe knows how to carry out its rules. It is its rules. The rules temporally create and support us; and we arenít thoroughly familiar with our make up.

We can move from these modes of philosophical conjecture to the realm of Physics, in such a way as to actually meet the substance of reference frame relativity. We have two atomic clocks. We put one in a centrifuge, and leave the other one on the table, as a reference to time in our overall frame. The one in the centrifuge generates fewer ticks. This isnít a fluke ó itís an aspect of reference frames that is revisited in numerous scientific encounters. For example, the life span of short-lived particles is increased when their velocity is increased. The speed of their internal "timer" has slowed down.

The key to shifting reference frames is energy. This is to say that photons are involved. A system includes a sub-system. The sub-system has its energy level increased, relative to the parent system. The imbalance in the photon exchange of energy resides in the higher energy level of the sub-system. The sub-system has been re-defined as a new relative reference frame. Its time base is altered away from the one it shared with its parent. The rules of reality were written in the transformation that took place in this process. The rules didnít just provide for the behavior; they were the flow of process to process+"new" process. Every point of view of reality is the enactment of the rules that compose that reality. These rules fill-out the dimensionality of reality, relative to the consciousness included in that framework.

This subject is conducive to the imagination of irreconcilable outcomes. When we force the issue, it seems to force back with impossibilities, that we might have to accept as the true nature of a multi-talented reality. Along these lines there have been considerations such as the "twins paradox." I would like to contribute one that has been driving me crazy for years, because I think it is do-able. Letís call it the "solar-stationary paradox." It expands the centrifuge experiment to the framework of our solar system.

We send a clock into a very large and very fast centrifuge. The velocity of the clock will be about 18.5 miles/second, relative to its origin on Earth. The direction is opposite to that of the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The clock has solar sails that act to keep it in a solar-stationary position. The clock has a tick counter and a radio to inform us of the count as we pass by, once every year. From our reference frame, you would expect that the results should be similar, but exaggerated, as compared with the centrifuge data. We should see fewer ticks from the solar clock than from our Earth-bound clock. From the reference frame of the Sun, however, we can imagine that the same difference should exist between the clock tick counts of the Earth clock and the solar clock; but it should be the Earth clock, not the solar clock, that reports the lower count.


We can take a sci-fi approach, for a while here, in speculations of how the experiment might run. We might end up having to propose that you not only are all of the lives you see around you, as well as all the ones you havenít seen; but that each such life might have an infinite number of alternative turns available to each moment within it. Your current life will repeat an infinite number of times; in what would seem to be identical form, as well as in identical form up to various certain points, where it will take all manner of possible turns, as the rules of our type of reality call upon whatever requirements they run into. This was already a consideration; but now it would seem to be a mandatory requirement of any reality that involves energy.

This is like proposing that the Universe can cheat, in order to make everything fit together exactly as necessary. Your other yous (everyone else) will all be there to do just what you did then, so you can now do what youíre doing as your current you; no matter what you do! There is a version of reality for every occasion. The Universe canít make a mistake. The would-be mistakes simply are a part of alternative realities. All such realities are generated by our rule tree; which supports time in a framework that isolates would-be contradictions the best it can... until you start playing with that time framework.

This would mean our split brain experiences arenít quite as unusual as we thought. All of us are constantly branching off into multiple realities.

We could push things even farther, and send out a second artificially orbiting clock; again moving opposite to the direction of the Earthís orbit; but with an equal and opposite velocity to our orbit, with respect to the Sun. We would see its velocity as being about 37 miles per second, while the Sun would see it as 18.5 miles per second; the same as the Earth; the only difference being the direction of the orbit. The Sun would see both clocks as running slower, by the same factor, as compared with the solar-stationary clock. We, on the other hand, would see the other orbiting clock as running even slower than the slower running solar-stationary clock. To make things even more interesting, we could have our clocks relay their information around, and then send their interpretation of things to us, at the annual rendezvous.

This experiment could verify that different sub-frames see the same overall frame differently... not just as differences in the apparent motion and position of objects... but as differences in seeing such things as a numeric figure printed in response to a common event. The reverse-orbiting clock, and the solar stationary clock, could record their own tick count, and the counts of the other clocks as relayed to them in proximity, in response to requests initiated by the various data gathering systems. Then both clocks could relay their findings back to us on Earth. From this we might find one of three or more things to be the case, for how reality operates. If the reports are different from each other, and from our view of things, then each frame is true to itself, yet different from the others... reality exists in multiple versions. A second possibility is that all of the reports could agree with Earth. Maybe, then, it isnít simply a matter of adding energy to a system, if you want to slow down its time base; the vector must cancel itself relative to bigger, "truer" chunks of process. In other words, the Sun rules, because it has more mass. If you move to its frame, your time base will speed up, relative to Earthís. If all reports agree, they may agree that the stationary clock is running faster than Earthís, and the reverse-orbiting clock is running as slow as Earthís.

There is a third possibility for the results of our solar clocks, where we consider the odd sci-fi interpretation. All of the reports could agree with our Earthly view that the greater the velocity, relative to Earth, the slower the clock. We could get these reports as a result of making actual contact with the split-off versions of the satellites that belong to Earthís reality. The only way to get the differing readings that we expect, is to enter the reality that belongs to that data, by traveling with a satellite. In other words, the send-off of a solar-stationary clock marks the beginning of a departure between two continuum sets; where one set is accessible to the Earth, and the other is accessible to the Sun.

The Twins Paradox may fit into this multiple-picture as well. The twin who leaves, enters a continuum branch that sees Earthís clocks slow down. The twin who remains on Earth sees the traveler enter another branch of reality where the traveling clock slows down. There are now four twins. Each sees what he expects to see. When the traveler returns, he finds the Earth of his branch, with clocks that had run slower. The Earth of the other branch gets the other traveler back with a clock that had run slower. This Earth is "ours" unless we travel significantly, to "another" Earth.

The constant through all this is the photon effects that are able to support reality, and are unable to keep all clocks running together. This happens because the apparent light velocity of the induced timing between interactions is a constant, while a moving system draws out the distances in its clock that are perpendicular to its motion of travel; according to observers at the origin of that travel. The traveling observer should know better than to think that the same reasoning applies to the clock at home, because only he experienced acceleration. When he returns to Earth velocity, his clock will come back up to its original Earth rate... but it will have lost some time from traveling.


Let us now attempt to analyze time base modification, from a simple approach, part way toward the view that is the subject of this book. As a starting concept, letís say the world is three dimensional. It is a three dimensional framework, within which all manner of smaller three dimensional objects can reside. Such residence would be static. We have three dimensions, but no way to modify our definitions. A moving object has a constantly changing view of the three dimensional frame. Its movement constantly re-defines the structure of the frame. In other words, each moment is a static three dimensional frame; but a reality of motion consists of a series of such frames, where each frame is similar, but slightly different, than the one before it. We call this time; and it transcends the concept of a three dimensional frame. It is a collection of three dimensional frames, that constitute the fourth dimension. This logic follows from the concept that any single three dimensional frame would be a collection, or "stack," of its two dimensional constituents.

If the moving object in our frame is real, then it will have a constituent system. If that object is a mechanical watch, for example, it could be thought of, itself, as a frame that supports uniform motion. If the object is an electronic watch, it is a system that changes in response to internal cycles that are closely related to atomic processes. The mechanical watch, too, is a process induced by atomic processes. If the object is a rock, you canít tell the time by looking at it; but it too is composed of atomic processes.

Now our four dimensional frame is composed of four dimensional objects. This framework still has a static character... all of the motion is uniform. Everything is moving in straight lines at a constant velocity with respect to the overall average motion.

If we want to change the motion of any object, we need to change the structure of our four dimensional frame. Again, we can call on a higher dimension to accomplish this. Energy is required to modify motion. Energy is the fifth dimension. It is a collection of four dimensional frames. It could be thought here that the energy is the movement of an objectís "position," or status, in the fourth dimension, just as time is the uniform movement of the object in three dimensions. When a stable velocity is left to inertia, its object has come to rest at a point in the fourth dimension. This point is a definition for the series of three dimensional relationships that will continue to comprise the temporal attribute of uniform motion in reality. Accelerating or decelerating objects are being moved from one four dimensional point to another. All of the three dimensional frameworks involved in this share the four dimensional reality of relative differences in velocity; but all consider themselves to be stationary, so long as their status is not shifted in the fourth dimension by energy.

Time will be defined in the next chapter, as an aspect of dimensionality embodied in the fourth through sixth dimensions. Later, as we approach Object Physics, it will be suggested that time composes all dimensions; and that there are infinite positive and negative dimensions. For the moment, we have been dealing with the first tier of this approach. Time is the fourth dimension, in the respect that the complete collection of all three dimensional frameworks supports uniform motion.

Your time base only becomes different if your relative motion is changed... energy could be applied to make it different, or to make it the same again. Energy will slow down your time, as well as speed it up, relative to average motion in the Universe. That average motion is zero with respect to the big bang, so you almost always have to slow it down first. The components that sum to give that net effect of zero, have local systems of motion, and local points of view that see themselves moving very quickly away from the origin of the big bang. The viewpoint from the origin itself is really a complete reference, that can be thought of as the source of time. Your motion is rapidly running away from the origin, but your time base is running as fast as it can be, with respect to complete, total history, because the given motion of the Earth contributes to the overall status of zero motion, from the true, total point of view of the origin; even if its an acceleration vector, currently at 60,000 MPH. Any change in your given starting conditions, produces positive motion with respect to the overall motion of the Universe. If you accelerate in any direction, your internal timers will slow down, by all local accounts, because your prior motion was part of the overall definition of zero motion, and the overall system is the source of all of its inner time. (We are beginning to consider the mechanics of interaction between the levels of dimensionality that compose the mathematical structure of reality.) When we visualize the big bang, we want to isolate our own outward motion from the picture, and imagine a frame around that; thinking of ways to affect the inner source of time differently. To see how that inner source will respond, you must include its source in the overall object of your consideration. In this case, that object is the whole big bang. You cannot isolate one of its expansion vectors, and then expect to understand the source of time. The origin of the big bang sees all of its expansion vectors. Consequently, its overall impression of things is that nothing is moving. That includes you. Even though you can pick out limited surroundings that indicate youíre traveling at a very great speed; the source of time sees you as an important element of its total constituency of zero motion. From the point of view of the source of time, then, any change of motion we decide to take, in any direction, will initiate an attempt to depart from zero. No direction of travel will be slower than zero. We see fundamental rules of reality compensate to insure that overall motion remains zero. The source of time will slow within the frame of imposed motion, to the exact degree that the new motion is the creation of new time. The origin is distributed as the source of time within all moving frames of the bang. It maintains an overall zero because itís the mathematical point. It is the point as the origin of our bang, as well as the origin of time within all matter.

From the viewpoint of this definition, a centrifuge can slow time; but if it provided a moving platform for another centrifuge, whoís velocity was equal and opposite to the base system, you can see that the additional energy would go into the undoing of the original generation of centrifugal force, and surely the undoing of the reduction in the rate of time. There are lots of viewpoints, but they donít really disagree so much with each other... they work together, and share a common source of their separate times.

Energy is the key to shifting your reference frame, but the key to making sense of all this is in recognizing that we must define the beginning point of each experiment as the boundary of a system, and we must be sure to include all of the relative components of time and distance that exist within that boundary. I think of this as defining an object.

In the case of Earth orbit, the angular velocity is very likely to be a given at the start of the experiment. The only way the Sun could see a reverse vector as causing an increase in time rate, would be if Earthís orbit (or lack thereof) had been sped up somehow. Even though the background stars of our galaxy would seem to create a relative stationary reference for the Sun, the starting point of our experiment also includes this relative motion. The Sun can see Earth orbit, or it can see the stars move around behind a stationary Earth. Either view is correct, and time will continue its given relative rates so long as this given motion is adhered to. When the orbiting clock is sent off, opposite to Earthís orbit, all parties will agree that it runs slower. This would agree with centrifuge, airplane pilot, astronaut, and particle data; taken from all directions of motion.

Even though we want to say that the Sun would see the Earth as moving, relative to the background stars, we must recognize that this condition was a given that defines our references. We must choose all rates of time within the system of sub-systems as being the composition of reference time. Our direction and speed in orbit around the Sun, in orbit around the galaxy, and in expansion from the big bang, are all of no consequence to any experiment we devise for time base modification, because those conditions are always going to be starting conditions for humans. With this in mind, we can expect time to be slowed down within any system that departs from the motion of the surface of the Earth. The thought here is that bang expansion vectors complement gravity as the perfect ordinate of motion, coalescing and moving heavenly bodies to fulfill the net-zero requirements of the origin.

This same system produces collisions between objects, that result in balanced time-base modifications. As in the centrifuge example, we might consider the creation of natural reference frames from which you could speed time up instead of slowing it down; because energy will be applied twice within the definition of the object, in contradictory vectors. First you accept your time base, then you slow time down within a sub-system that was included in the starting definition of the object. Now you have an opportunity to speed some time up by applying an opposite vector, that can bring the sub-system back to its original time base.

Imagine the Universe is a large billiard table. Its objects are billiard balls with built-in clocks. We might consider a simple starting definition of two balls; one stationary, and one moving. The moving ball is heading for the stationary one. Both clocks contribute to our perception of the nature of time in reality. When the moving ball hits the stationary one, motion is conserved in the Universe. Motion is conserved on the table, and within the balls. The ball that was stationary starts moving, and its clock slows down. The ball that was moving stops, and its clock speeds up, if it is a ball on a table on Earth. A more realistic starting definition is many balls all heading away from each other. Out in the cosmos, for the moving ball to have its clock speed up when it "stops," it would have to already have had its clock slowed down with prior modification of its ordinate trajectory. Some other ball must have hit it before. We could follow this problem back to the moment of the big bang; and surmise that the irregularities of motion we observe must also be a product of the origin. They arise from irregularities on the other side of that horizon, in the other time that complements ours. Or, perhaps all bangs start perfectly, but include moving bodies destined to collide. The first collision produces a slowing of time in all of the altered-motion products. These are then available to serve as platforms from which time can be sped up by moving a system in a specific direction.

Earth itself could have a slightly inordinate motion vector. It is conceivable that very time-sensitive telemetric probes could detect Earthís average impact history, to determine if there has been an imbalance in applied vectors. I donít know how easily this could be done, or just what value the data would have. It might involve precise comparisons between the time required for two-way telemetric cycles, and the reported tics from the probes. How much inordinate velocity could this big old planet have, that isnít discernible from our orbital characteristics? Maybe such a study would lead to suspicions about earlier planetary configurations.


Toward a General Frame


The general frame will be considered as the composition of infinite time. It is all of the distributed source of time. The frame itself is complete. From within the frame it is endless, relative to a given flow of consciousness.

If the frame is infinite, any piece of it is also infinite. Multiple pieces of it will give rise to finitudes as matters of relative limitations. Such pieces are involved in the generation of awareness. Pieces of eternity reliably build consistent rules of reality that serve as a basis for the development of ongoing experience. Infinite time seems endless to the consciousness that is relatively finite, while that process is composed of sub-processes arising from internal infinity of time. In other words, there are other reference frames of time within time, that would say our life spans are eternal. We are beginning to consider a relative arrangement of recurring dimensions in mathematical reality.

We have proposed that the source of time is the distributed origin, as a means of delineating a system of time base relationships predictably exemplified by experiments involving changing motion in various directions, relative to given factors of motion. The overall picture is a complete frame produced by a point. The point is the distributed origin. The point is the mathematical point. As such, it can be thought of as having qualities of nothing. Yet it produces everything. The bridge is infinity. The internal factor of infinity within reality works to produce "something" out of an infinite amount of "nothing." Since the frame is infinite, and we had time to produce something, we have time to produce an infinite amount of something. The result is rules. An infinite amount of nothing is something, and an infinite number of somethings includes rules. Rules are only rules if they are reliable ó if they relate to each other over time, to support their own repetition, in support of an overall system of rule structure. To such a structure, all of the "other rules" and somethings that donít fit in right, amount to so much background noise, and factors of uncertainty. All that junk pretty much goes by within the great multiplicity of internal eternities, while consciousness is generated as a relatively temporary aspect of a great external eternity where the constituent atoms seem to be well behaved.

We will consider gravitation to be an effect of the rules, resulting from basic logical interaction between the point and itself, as a fundamental substance of time. When we shift our view of reality through some number of dimensions, that same interaction shifts from gravitation to charge or nuclear force, relative to our new position in the endless scheme of dimensionality.


We will not consider a starting point for our big bang that has no motion. The origin is a viewpoint where all motion is transparent, by virtue of built-in compensations. In essence, it is the forbidden starting point... but it carries with it the trade-off of never being able to respond to any of the motion, as a central point. Instead, it is distributed as systems that can interact.

We will consider that a black hole is the other side of such an origin. In other words, the other side of the origin of our big bang would say that we are in a black hole. The general frame of time consists of relatively opposite frames, that both consider themselves to be running forward, and the other to be running backward. Things are always running in the general frame, though its component frames would say that they start from nothing, and end up there as well.

Perhaps the big bang starts out as a relatively small and dense bubble. The bubble grows and "pops," draining into its black holes. Any leftovers may drain into their selves, at some point where there is sufficiently less process left on our side of the holes to share the rate of our time. Or, perhaps the leftovers expand for eternity, relative to the conscious systems they produced; and this is the logical equivalent of draining. The backwards side would not experience its future before its past... we would perceive its future to come before its past, from our polarity of time; but we would also have to be able to perceive that our time has stopped during the other side of the cycle. Object Physics will explore the possible details of such a system, and suggest that it is replicated in rapid miniature form, throughout matter. We will consider a simple model where the phases of time appear as polarities of charge. The proton may be in phase with our time, and the lighter electron mostly produces our mass space. These mass-space systems, and the space space between them, are components of our phase of time in the big bang.

If the center of our system could perceive, it would see the timing differently. The two polarities of time co-exist, so as to produce the necessary zero effect. From its point of view, we might describe a simple model of the big bang in terms of two opposing systems. They both depart simultaneously, and hence, depart no effect upon the origin. As systems, they each contain at least two parts; one of which is moving relative to the other. As transparent systems, they can exist together at the moment of departure, again without imparting motion to the origin, due to their phase relationship. That is; as one system oscillates, the other does so in precise reverse order. Since nothing ever affects our origin, we can say that it doesnít exist. We can say that it does exist, instead, as the relationship between our systems, that produces that net effect of zero. It is within all matter.


The speed of light (Vc) seems to be a constant. As such, we can consider it to be a reference. If it is the most fundamental reference, it is basic to all other processes. In such a position, if it is the most basic reference, then it determines the flow of all process, in the sense that it is the most fundamental foundation upon which all higher process is constructed. That higher process will observe itself to be fundamentally composed of the reference process; and will surmise that that reference is perfectly stable. This will be true, no matter what pattern or rate or variability exists within the fundamental reference itself... all else will follow from that, regarding it to be the perfect source of timing out of which all other timing is generated... to which all other timing must compare itself. It is that other timing that develops perception, with which to observe the fundamental source as a constant.

Vc turns out to be the apparent separation, in time, between the various locations of the origin. To our perception, distance and time exist. They are related trade-offs in all processes. Our perception is also process. Distance is inverse to time. The combination of distance and time is the point. Our perception is relative to the reality within the point.

The constancy of Vc acts as a grid upon which all of the points of the origin originate. It stabilizes the relationship between the apparent distance between such points, and the process of altering the arrangement of the points. In other words; like the point, Vc is pivotal to the function of reality. We would like to say that it is a property of space, but it is really a property of the point. It is a heartbeat of the point. "Nothing" can come and go, without changing anything... itís another possible given, just like the existence of the point at all. This process can take place at any rate, or variation, and become a reference upon which all higher ordinate process will rely, as a constant. It is the most fundamental process. As such, it composes all other process. As the definition of the foundation of process, it acts as the most basic reference of temporal reality.

The pivotal action of Vc in the point, acts to compensate time with distance, or distance with time. This balance exists within objects, as well as between them. When an object is moved, relative to the others in the Universe, it is not a single point source of the point. The single-point view of things is only available in our imagination as "the point," or the starting moment of a lone big bang. If we try to apply it to objects that have relationships with other objects, we must submit to the reality where multiplicity of the point exists within those objects as well as in their number. When we think of time within an object as being a function of its velocity, we must remember that this system is not alone ó the rules in place apply to its internal rate relative to the internal rates of all the other objects.


Now, when we consider relative motion of objects, we must consider that multiple origins are being moved "together." The pivotal nature of Vc in this process, balances distance with time, in the apparent stable fashion of a fundamental reference; and does so for all origins involved.


Inertial Frames


The process of "informing" all pertinent origins that they are moving, itself involves Vc timing relationships between the origins of the accelerated object. The "first" ones are moved before the "last" ones. The result is a compressing together of those origins, in the direction of new motion. We perceive this as being associated with acceleration. We also note an associated reduction in the rate of the heartbeat of all origins subjected to new motion. Time that was available for the production of those heartbeats has gone into the process of moving those origins at a new rate, relative to their old rate, and the rest of the origins. To the degree that heartbeats are "lost," new motion is gained. That new motion is equivalent, as time, to the time that was defined as the missing heartbeats, in the eyes of the overall origin. Those heartbeats are actually more of the same kind of process going on internally, as we regard to be the flow of time externally. To move the sub-system at Vc would require that its internal motion stop, and its external motion be provided by the sum of all energy. To move the object at the apparent speed of light would require that it transpire over the entire Universe without needing a single heartbeat, from the internal view; but needing all of them everywhere from the external view. This cannot be done. We have rules. We are rules. As complex as they can seem, they stem from the simplest structural basis. From the total point of view of the origin, the sum of all motion remains zero.